Wednesday, 24 February 2016

Equipments used for our experiments (Updated)

  1. Water Quality with Vernier - 1x
  2. Salinity Meter - 1x
  3. Glass Rod - 1x
  4. Sea Salt - 90 grams
  5. Deionised Water - 1 bottle
  6. Beaker - 1x
  7. Plastic Containers - 30x
  8. Cling Wrap - 1 roll
  9. Duckweed - 1 packet
  10. Monte Carlo - 1 packet
  11. EcoPond Water - 12 litres
  12. Disposable Gloves - 6 pairs

Trial Experiment - Failed

After we sought permission to begin our experiment, we started with 4 tubs of Water Hyacinth. However, due to the fact that we did not research much, we put tap water into the tubs. Unfortunately, the water hyacinths died after 1 day and we could not complete our experiment with reliable results. We then found out that tap water contains chlorine and thus our plants died after absorbing them.

Thursday, 21 January 2016

Beginning our Trial Experiment

After seeking approval from Mr Tan, our team will be beginning our trial experiment of water hyacinth in polluted water (SST Eco Pond Water).

The trial will last for 5 days before we begin our first experiment on Monday (January 25, 2016). We will be getting water hyacinth from the aquatic stores Swee Seng Aquarium, along Sunset Way, for SGD$1 each, soon. 

Thursday, 14 January 2016

General Information: Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes)

Aquatic plants scientists call water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes and several related species) the worst aquatic plant in the world! It is native to South America, but has been naturalized in most of the southern United States and in many of the world's subtropical and tropical climates. Water hyacinth plants have tremendous growth and reproductive rates and the free-floating mats cause substantial problems. Plant managers and water front residents spend millions of dollars per year in the United States for its management.
Water hyacinth is a popular water garden plant because of the beauty of its large, purple to violet flowers and its interesting floating vegetation. Many plant nurseries and big box stores sell it in Washington as an ornamental pond plant each spring and summer. Although weed scientists believe that water hyacinth cannot survive Washington's winters, its presence as an ornamental makes it possible for escape and growth in the wild. Water hyacinth can survive freezing conditions in other states where it is established and it may be possible for this plant to over winter during a mild western Washington winter.

Growth Habit

Water hyacinth is a free-floating plant that gets its nutrients from the water from dangling roots. The plant reproduces by seeds and vegetatively through daughter plants that form on rhizomes and produce dense plant beds. In one study, two plants produced 1,200 daughter plants in four months. By this mechanism, water hyacinth can form impenetrable mats of floating vegetation. Individual plants break off the mat and can be dispersed by wind and water currents. A single plant can produce as many as 5,000 seeds and waterfowl eat and transport seeds to new locations. Seedlings are common on mud banks exposed by low water levels.


Plant managers control water hyacinth by many methods including harvesting, application of aquatic herbicides, and biological control agents. In Washington, the best way to manage water hyacinth is to prevent it from ever becoming established. If you purchase water hyacinth at a local nursery, do not dispose of excess plants by throwing them into a lake, river, stream, or drainage ditch. A number of water hyacinth plants have been found in drainage ditches in the Longview/Kelso area in southwestern Washington. Drainage ditch managers believe that somebody with a nearby ornamental pond disposes of excess plants by throwing them into the drainage canals. University arboretum staff discovered a large infestation of water hyacinth in a backwater area on Lake Washington where somebody had either deliberately wanted to introduce water hyacinth plants or used the arboretum as a convenient place to dump excess plants. In both instances, managers immediately hand removed all water hyacinth plants from these water bodies.
Help prevent introduction of water hyacinth into Washington waters by:
  • Disposing of all excess plants on a compost heap and away from water.
  • Only planting water hyacinth into ornamental ponds and not natural water bodies. This is asking for trouble


Water hyacinth is distinctive.
  • They are floating plants with round to oval, shiny green leaves up-to-ten inches in diameter, although smaller leaves are common.
  • Leaves are held upright so they act like sails.
  • The leaf stalk is thick and spongy and helps to keep the plant buoyant
  • A mass of fine roots hang in the water underneath the plant
  • The flowers are large (2-3 inches) and attractive. They are blue-purple or lilac-colored with a yellow spot
Another tropical floating-leaved nursery plant, called water lettuce, may be mistaken for water hyacinth However; water lettuce doesn't have showy flowers and has large ribbed leaves. Water lettuce is much less cold-tolerant than water hyacinth and is not thought able to survive in cold climates

Citation: Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes). (n.d.). Retrieved from

Tuesday, 12 January 2016

More about Water Hyacinth!

The roots of Eichhornia crassipes naturally absorb pollutants, including leadmercury, and strontium-90, as well as some organic compounds, believed to be carcinogenic, in concentrations 10,000 times that in the surrounding water. Water hyacinths can be cultivated for waste water treatment.
Water hyacinth is reported for its efficiency to remove about 60–80 % nitrogen (Fox et al. 2008) and about 69% of potassium from water (Zhou et al. 2007). The roots of water hyacinth were found to remove particulate matter and nitrogen in a natural shallow eutrophicated wetland (Billore et al. 1998).

Citation: Eichhornia crassipes. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Monday, 11 January 2016

About Us

Group: E

Group Members, of S2-08 (2016):

  • Alden Andrew (8)
  • Brendan Lee Shi He (12)
  • Goh Ming Wei, Daryl (20)

Research Title of our project:

^ Click here for our proposal! :)

Category 3: 
3. Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
(a) Observe a phenomenon and develop testable questions
(b) Identify control variables and response functions
(c)  Design an experimental procedure to vary the control variable, measure the response variables, and keep other factors constant
(d) Construct any necessary apparatus
(e) Perform the experiments
(f)  Analyse the relation between control variables and response variables, and characterize the relation mathematically

Sub-Category 16:
(a) Atmosphere: Air Pollution and Air Quality 
(b) Lithosphere: Soil Contamination and Soil Quality
(c) Hydrosphere: Water Pollution and Water Quality ()
(d) Other

Wednesday, 6 January 2016

What is the Scientific Method?

What is Science?:
Science is the study of the physical and human world, through creating hypothesises, conducting experiments, and coming up with a final result.

What is the Scientific Method?:
The scientific method is a process of techniques which you can use to investigate, research, or experiment. It is essential and important wheneverwant to experiment a hypothesis or question. Recently, a new method was added. 'Seek Funding'. This is important as you need to know if you have enough money to fund your experiment. In school, you may need to get monetary approval from your teachers. But if you are doing it on your own, you need to fund your experiment well. You also need to assess the value of research. Or else, your research may not be of value and you would have wasted your time doing your experiment. Sometimes, our questions may have already been answered and there would be no need for an experiment. That is why it is always important to assess your research value before conducting the investigation.